A. Leadership Positions
There were no significant gender differences in:
aspiration to a leadership position
(women - 61%, men - 57%)
importance of having a leadership position
(1-5 scale, 5 as "very important": women - 3.0, men - 3.3)
perception that they had the qualities of a good leader
(women - 91%, men - 95%)
willingness to take on time consuming tasks
(1-6 scale, 6 as "very willing": women - 4.33, men - 4.55)
perception of being undermined in a leadership role
(women - 42%, men - 44%)
However, women were significantly less likely to be asked to serve as a:
(women - 48%, men - 68%; p<.006)
Section or division head
(women - 12%, men - 45%; p<.00001)*
(women - 6%, men 26%,; p<.0007)*
* When analyses were limited to associate and full professors, these differences remained statistically significant.
B. Power and Influence in Department
Women reported having significantly less power and influence in their departments. They were less likely to:
Feel they were effective in influencing departmental decisions
(1-6 scale, 6 as "very effective": women - 3.6, men - 4.2, p<.01)
Have decision-making authority over promotion of colleagues
(women - 27%, men - 48%; p<.005)
Have decision-making authority for allocation of non-grant related resources
(women - 22%, men - 47%; p<.0006)*
Offer advice to the department chair
(1-5 scale, 5 as "always": women - 2.7, men - 3.2, p<.001)*
* When analyses were limited to associate and full professors, differences remained statistically significant.
Women are interested in and feel capable of taking on leadership roles. While they are asked to serve as committee chairs, they are rarely asked to lead in other capacities. They are less likely than men to have decision-making authority over promotion and resources. In general, women have less power and influence in COM than their male colleagues.
C. Career and Family Issues
Male and female faculty do not differ in:
Importance of career advancement
(1-5 scale, 5 as "very important": women - 4.1, men - 4.2, p<.79)
Importance of balancing work with personal life
(1-5 scale, 5 as "very important": women - 4.6, men - 4.5, p<.12)
Extent to which work and personal life conflict
(1-6 scale, 6 as "always conflicts": women - 4.5, men - 4.6, p<.78)
Desire to work part-time (among full time faculty); though women are significantly more likely to be in part-time positions
(women - 9.0%, men - 0.8%, p<.01)
Women were less likely to be willing to move for a better job (women - 57%, men - 71%; p<.05)
Women were significantly more likely to be employed at the COM as the result of a spouse/partner's hire
(women - 19.3%, men - 1.7%; p<.0001). There were no gender differences in terms of whether assistance was provided to help the accompanying spouse find a job.
Differences between women and men in their family commitments and the desire to balance career with family life are small.
D. Staff Support and Resources
There were no gender differences (either overall or when adjusted for rank) in perceptions of the difficulty in obtaining:
(1-5 scale, 5 as "always difficult": women -2.9, men - 2.7, p<.22)
(1-5 scale, 5 as "always difficult": women - 3.0, men - 3.0, p<.93)
support for clinical activities
(1-5 scale, 5 as "always difficult": women - 2.9, men - 3.3, p<.08)
advice/reports on fiscal matters
(1-5 scale, 5 as "always difficult": women - 2.8, men - 2.9, p<.66)
(1-5 scale, 5 as "always difficult": women - 3.3, men - 3.3, p<.80)
Although both women and men find it moderately difficult to procure resources and support, there are no significant gender differences.
E. Physical Space
There were no gender differences in terms of:
whether office space was shared
(women - 12%, men - 17%; p<.33)
the amount of effort it took to obtain non-grant supported office space (1-5 scale with 5 being "a great deal of effort":
(women - 3.5, men - 3.4; p<.73 )
whether the faculty member felt they were given appropriate non-grant supported space
(women - 71%, men - 66%; p<.44)
There were significant differences related to research space:
Women full professors were significantly more likely to share research space with other faculty
(women - 73%, men - 40%; p<.05)
After adjusting for rank, women reported exerting significantly more effort to obtain non-grant supported research space
(1-5 scale with 5 being "a great deal of effort": women - 4.4, men - 3.8; p<.02 )
Women do not have greater difficulty obtaining office space, but they are more likely to share, and have more difficulty obtaining, research space.
There were no gender differences in the value placed on mentoring received
(1-5 scale with 5 being 'very valuable': women - 3.8, men - 3.7; p<.66) or in whether mentoring had been received.
There were no gender differences in whether the department head was perceived as taking an interest in the respondent's career advancement
(1-6 scale with 6 being 'always takes an interest': women - 4.0, men - 4.0; p<.82).
G. Promotion and Track Assignment
Women took longer to be promoted to associate professor (women - 6.5 yrs, men - 5.2 yrs; p<.01). This becomes borderline significant when adjusted for track and total publications
(women - 6.0, men - 5.2, p<.09). However, there are no significant gender differences with regard to length of time as associate professor, after adjusting for degree, track and number of publications.
A greater proportion of women felt they did not know the requirements for being promoted
(women - 13.4%, men - 4.3%; p<.05).
Women were significantly more likely to have considered changing tracks (women - 58%, men - 29%; p<.0001), particularly if they were on the tenure track
(women - 46%, men - 9%; p<.00001).
There was no significant gender difference in delaying the tenure clock
(women - 16%, men - 10%, p<.25).
Promotion to higher ranks takes longer for women, and the tenure track as currently structured seems to carry particular challenges for women.
H. Treatment by Others
no gender differences in frequency of:
Colleagues/supervisors questioning one's expertise or authority
Being criticized by colleagues or supervisors on appearance or style of communication
Respectful treatment by staff
Women were less likely to feel like they "fit in" (women 72%, men 85%, p<.03).
Women were significantly less likely to feel they were given appropriate credit for their work
(1-6 scale, 6 as "always": women - 4.2, men - 4.5; p<.06).
Women were significantly more likely to report that safety concerns had deterred them from working at certain times
(women - 10.1%, men - 1.6%; p<.01), or in certain places (women - 11.6%, men - 4.7%; p<.07).
Although there are few differences in treatment by colleagues, staff and supervisors, women are less likely to feel that they are given appropriate credit.
I. Gender Discrimination
Women were significantly more likely to state that their department treated men and women differently, either somewhat or to a great extent
(women - 54%, men - 21%; p<.00001).
Women were significantly more likely to report they had been discriminated against
(women - 32%, men - 5%; p<.00001).
None of the men and only 7% of the women who were discriminated against sought recourse.
More women than men felt that the COM responds inappropriately to charges of discrimination
(women - 68%, men - 15%, p<.00001).
The majority of women on the faculty at the COM feel their departments treat men and women differently. Almost one third of women reported being discriminated against, and most women question the response of the COM to charges of discrimination.